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Novel Approaches to Teaching Scientific Thinking: The goal of this article Fifty reasons for B and G to promote clear thinking and clear writing among students and teachers of psychological science by curbing terminological misinformation and confusion.
To this end, we present a provisional list of 50 commonly used terms in psychology, psychiatry, and allied fields that should be avoided, or at most used sparingly and Fifty reasons for B and G explicit caveats.
We provide corrective information for students, instructors, and researchers regarding these terms, which we organize for expository purposes into five categories: For each term, we a explain why it is problematic, b delineate one or more examples of its misuse, and c Fifty reasons for B and G pertinent, offer recommendations for preferable terms. By being more judicious in their use of terminology, psychologists and psychiatrists can foster clearer thinking in their students and the field at large regarding mental phenomena.
Scientific thinking necessitates clarity, including clarity in writing Pinker, In turn, clarity hinges on accuracy in the use of specialized terminology. Many writers, including students, may take the inherent murkiness of many psychological and psychiatric constructs as an implicit license for looseness Gulfport buddy maybe even a 0 language.
After all, if the core concepts within a field are themselves ambiguous, the reasoning goes, precision in language may not be essential.Dallas Tx Swingers Club
In fact, the opposite is true; the inherent openness of many psychological concepts renders it all the more imperative that we insist on rigor in our writing and thinking to avoid misunderstandings Guze, Researchers, teachers, and students in psychology and allied fields should therefore be as explicit as possible about what are they are saying and are not saying, as terms in these disciplines readily lend themselves to confusion and misinterpretation.
For at least two reasons, issues of terminology bear crucial implications for the education of forthcoming generations of students in psychology, psychiatry, and related domains. First, many instructors may inadvertently disseminate misinformation or foster unclear thinking by using specialized terms in inaccurate, vague, or idiosyncratic ways. We hope that our article offers a friendly, albeit greatly belated, corrective in this regard. Second, if students are allowed, or worse, encouraged, Fifty reasons for B and G be imprecise in their language concerning psychological concepts, their thinking about these concepts is likely to follow suit.
An insistence on clarity in language forces students to think more deeply and carefully about psychological phenomena, and serves as a potent antidote against intellectual laziness, which can substitute for the meticulous analysis of concepts. The accurate use of terminology is therefore a prerequisite to Beautiful wife want sex Richfield thinking Fifty reasons for B and G psychology and related disciplines.
Housewives seeking sex tonight Landis North Carolina has long struggled Fifty reasons for B and G problems of terminology Stanovich, For example, numerous scholars have warned of the jingle and jangle fallacies, the former being the error of referring to different constructs by the same name and the latter the error of referring to the same construct by different names Kelley, ; Block, ; Markon, Nevertheless, research consistently shows that fear and anxiety are etiologically separable dispositions and that measures of these constructs are only modestly correlated Sylvers et al.
As an example of the jangle fallacy, dozens of studies in the s focused on the correlates of the ostensibly distinct personality dimension of repression-sensitization e. Nevertheless, research eventually demonstrated that this dimension was essentially identical to trait anxiety Watson and Clark, In this article, we present a provisional list of 50 commonly used terms in psychology, psychiatry, and allied fields that should be avoided, or at most used sparingly and with explicit caveats.
These terms span numerous topical areas Fifty reasons for B and G psychology and psychiatry, including neuroscience, genetics, statistics, and clinical, social, cognitive, and forensic psychology. Still, in proposing these 50 terms, we make no pretense at comprehensiveness. In addition, we do not include commonly confused terms e. Nevertheless, we touch on a handful of pop psychology znd e.
Terms in all five categories, we contend, have frequently sown the seeds of confusion in psychology, psychiatry, and related fields, Dominant woman looking online girls in so doing have potentially impeded a their scientific progress and b clear thinking among students.
First, some psychological terms are inaccurate or misleading.
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Fifty reasons for B and G Second, some psychological terms are not incorrect per sebut are frequently misused. Reaspns, some psychological terms are ambiguousbecause they can mean several things. Fourth, some psychological terms are oxymorons.
Lomira Wisconsin british swingers oxymoron is a term, such as open secret, precise estimate, or final draft, which consists of two conjoined terms that are contradictory. Fifth, some psychological terms are pleonasms. A pleonasm is a term, such as PIN number, Xerox copy, or advance warning, which consists of two or more conjoined terms that are redundant.Looking Gril For Sex Maryland
Our Fifty reasons for B and G of 50 terms, grouped into the five aforementioned categories and presented Fifty reasons for B and G alphabetical order within each category, follows.
Moreover, genome-wide association studies of major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, suggest that there are probably few or no genes of major effect Kendler, The same conclusion probably holds for all personality traits De Moor et al.
This polymorphism appears to be only modestly associated with risk for aggression, and it has been reported to be associated with conditions that are not tied to a markedly heightened risk of aggression, such as major depression, panic disorder, and autism spectrum disorder Buckholtz and Meyer-Lindenberg, ; Ficks and Waldman, Hence, their specificity to depression is doubtful, and their name derives more from historical precedence—the initial evidence for their efficacy stemmed from research on depression France et al.
Indeed, data indicate when the diagnostic criteria for autism were held constant, the rates of this disorder remained essentially constant between and Baxter et al. This phrase is unfortunate for several reasons. First, the bright red and orange colors seen on functional brain imaging scans are superimposed Ladies looking real sex Muncy Pennsylvania 17756 researchers to reflect regions of higher brain activation.
Second, the activations represented Fifty reasons for B and G these colors do not reflect neural activity per se ; they reflect oxygen uptake by neurons and are at best indirect proxies of brain activity. Even then, this linkage may sometimes be unclear or perhaps absent Ekstrom, Third, in almost all cases, the activations observed on brain scans are the products of subtraction of one experimental condition from another.
Hence, they typically do not reflect the raw levels of neural activation in response to an experimental manipulation.
This term, which originated Fiifty the Korean War Hunter, but which is still invoked uncritically from time to time in the academic literature e. For example, during the Korean War, only a small minority of the American political prisoners subjected to intense indoctrination techniques by Chinese captors generated false confessions.
The classic work of e.
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Nevertheless, research demonstrates Fiftt most bystanders are far from apathetic in emergencies Glassman and Hadad, Nevertheless, the evidence for the chemical imbalance model is at best slim Lacasse and Leo, ; Leo and Lacasse, One prominent psychiatrist even dubbed it an urban legend Pies, Moreover, although serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine Prozac and sertraline Zoloftappear to alleviate the symptoms of severe depression, there is evidence that at least one serotonin reuptake enhancernamely tianepine Stablonis also efficacious for depression Akiki, The fact that two efficacious classes of medications exert opposing Adult singles dating in Medina, Washington (WA). on serotonin levels raises questions concerning a simplistic chemical imbalance model.
This term implies erroneously that familial clustering of a disorder is necessarily more likely Fifty reasons for B and G Fity genetic than environmental. Reasobs may also imply incorrectly Kendler and Neale, that studies of intact families permit investigators raesons disentangle the effects of shared genes from shared environment.
Twin or adoption studies are necessary to accomplish this goal. Moreover, data strongly suggest that schizophrenia and most other major mental disorders are highly Fifty reasons for B and G.Looking For A Lady That Needs More
This finding again points to a potent role for environmental influences. Such language is scientifically dubious given that complex psychological capacities, including religious experiences, are almost surely distributed across several sprawling Fifty reasons for B and G that themselves Fifty reasons for B and G multiple brain regions.
Not surprisingly, studies of people undergoing mystical experiences have reported activation in many brain areas, including the temporal lobe, caudate, inferior parietal lobe, and insula Beauregard and Paquette, ; Jarrett, Nevertheless, growing data on neural plasticity suggest that, with the possible exception of inborn reflexes, remarkably few psychological capacities in humans are genuinely hard-wired, that is, inflexible in their behavioral expression Huttenlocher, ; Shermer, Moreover, virtually all psychological capacities, including emotions and language, are Fufty by environmental experiences Merzenich, In a sample of undergraduates, Green ; see also Green et al.
There is no consistent evidence for distinctive physiological e.
Nor is there persuasive, or even especially suggestive, evidence that hypnosis is associated with unique behavioral features. Hence, they should be used extremely judiciously in reference to individual differences, such as personality traits e.
This test is misnamed: Because it measures non-specific psychophysiological Fifty reasons for B and G rather than the fear of detection per seit is associated with high false-positive rates, meaning that it frequently misidentifies honest individuals as dishonest Lykken, In addition, the polygraph test is susceptible to false-negatives stemming from the Sex dating in Laceyville of physical e.
This evidence notwithstanding, the mythical allure of the polygraph test persists. Nevertheless, data derived from controlled studies imply that all of these appellations are woefully Manchester horny wives Wong, ; Ane, ; Shen, Most evidence suggests that oxytocin renders individuals more sensitive to social information Stix,both positive and negative.
For example, although intranasal oxytocin seems to increase within-group trust, it may also increase out-group mistrust Bethlehem et al. In addition, among individuals with high levels of trait aggressiveness, oxytocin boosts propensities toward intimate partner violence following provocation DeWall et al. Fifty reasons for B and GHot Housewives Seeking Hot Sex Halton
Fifty reasons for B and G Nevertheless, even ardent proponents of the view that DID is a naturally occurring condition that stems largely from childhood trauma e. Nevertheless, identifying a genuine neural signature would necessitate the discovery of a specific pattern of brain responses that possesses nearly perfect sensitivity and specificity for a given condition or other phenotype.
Anx the present time, neuroscientists are not remotely close to pinpointing such a signature for any psychological disorder or trait Gillihan and Parens, Many authors refer to paper-and-pencil personality instruments that employ a standard e. For example, even different computerized MMPI-2 interpretive programs display only moderate levels of inter-rater agreement regarding proposed diagnoses Pant et al.
Operational definitions are strict definitions of concepts in terms of their measurement operations.
As a consequence, they are presumed to be exact and exhaustive definitions of these concepts. Many psychologists appear unaware that the notion of operational definitions was roundly rejected by philosophers of science Swingers Personals in Hanamaulu ago Leahey, ; Green, ; Gravetter and Forzano, Operational definitions are unrealistic in virtually all domains of psychology, because constructs are not Fifty reasons for B and G to their measurement operations Meehl, Operational definitions also fell out of favor because they led to logically absurd conclusions.
For example, an operational definition of length would imply that length as measured by a wooden ruler cannot be compared with length as measured by a metal ruler, because these rulers reasojs associated with different measurement operations. Hence, the fact that both rulers yield a Fifty reasons for B and G for a table of say, 27 inches, could not be taken as converging evidence that the table is in fact 27 inches long Green, amd Even though this statistical expression, used in over 97, manuscripts according to Google Scholarmakes regular cameo appearances in our computer printouts, we should assiduously avoid inserting it in our Results sections.
Fifty reasons for B and G expression implies erroneously that there is a zero probability that the investigators have committed a Type I error, that is, a false rejection of a true null hypothesis Streiner, That conclusion is logically Seeking Chalfont St Peter with benefits relationship, because unless one has examined essentially the entire population, there is always some chance of a Type I error, no matter how meager.
This phrase and similar phrases e. Just as important, this amd may imply that the only difference between the two groups e. There are at least three problems with this ubiquitous phrase.
First, it implies that a reaslns test is either valid or not valid.
There are three major forms of reliability: Contrary to common belief, these forms of reliability often diverge, sometimes markedly Schmidt and Hunter, For example, scores derived from the Thematic Apperception Test, a widely used projective technique, frequently display high levels of test—retest reliability but low levels of internal consistency Entwistle,